California may legalize pot. As a major thoroughfare for supplies, Mexico may have to adapt. The feds threaten to sue California and still uphold marijuana laws.
Marijuana stays in the blood for a maximum of four hours.
TITL: [Serum cannabinoid levels 24 to 48 hours after cannabis smoking.] Cannabinoidbefunde im Serum 24 bis 48 Stunden nach Rauchkonsum.
AUTH: Skopp Gisela; Richter Barbara; Potsch Lucia
ORGA: Institut fur Rechts- und Verkehrsmedizin, Universitat Heidelberg.
PUB TYPE: Case Reports. Journal Article.
CITE: Arch Kriminol. 2003 Sep-Oct; 212 (3-4): 83-95.
LANG: GER; German
ABST: Low concentrations of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples are often claimed not to result from recent cannabis use. Prediction of time of exposure is difficult, especially if distinctive features of drug use could not be observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples as well as to obtain preliminary data on the analyte profile for a time window of 24-48 hours after discontinuation of cannabis smoking. Serum samples from heavy (n = 12, > 1 joint/day), moderate (n = 11, < or = 1 joint/day) and light (n = 6, < 1 joint/week) smokers of cannabis were analyzed for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and free THC-COOH by GC/MS as well as for glucuronidated THC-COOH by LC/MS-MS. The blood samples were collected 24-48 hours after abstaining from cannabis use. Additionally, 8 specimens were obtained from persons after discontinuation of the drug for more than 48 hours. During collection of the blood samples, distinctive effects due to drug use could not be observed. For heavy users of cannabis, THC was detectable in 8 samples, and in 5 cases both biologically active compounds, THC and 11-hydroxy-THC, were present (1.3-6.4 ng THC/mL serum, 0.5-2.4 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum). Among moderate users, in 1 sample 1.8 ng THC/mL serum and 1.3 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum were determined, and another sample was tested positive with low concentrations close to the limit of detection. In serum samples of light users both analytes could not be detected, indicating that in those persons a positive finding of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC may rather result from recent consumption than from cannabis use 1 or 2 days prior to blood sampling. The concentrations of THC-COOH and its glucuronide covered a wide range in all groups of cannabis users. However, there was a trend to higher concentrations in heavy users compared to moderate users, and the mean concentration was smaller in light smokers than in moderate smokers. Overall, the findings indicated that data from pharmacokinetic studies should be supplemented by data obtained from "real-life" samples.
MJTR: Accidents, Traffic, legislation & jurisprudence. Cannabinoids, blood. Marijuana Smoking, blood. Tetrahydrocannabinol, analogs & derivatives.
MNTR: Adult. English Abstract. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Fragmentography. Metabolic Clearance Rate, physiology. Predictive Value of Tests. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Tetrahydrocannabinol, blood. Time Factors.
RNUM: 0 (Cannabinoids); 1972-08-3 (Tetrahydrocannabinol); 23978-85-0 (delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid); 26108-40-7 (11-hydroxy-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol)
IDEN: ISSN: 0003-9225. JOURNAL-CODE: 0002256. ENTRY-DATE: 20031126. SPECIAL-LIST: IM. JOURNAL-SUBSET: IM.
TITL: [Passive exposure in detection of low blood and urine cannabinoid concentrations.] Zur Passivexposition bei der Beurteilung niedriger Cannabinoidkonzentrationen in Blut und Urin.
AUTH: Skopp G; Potsch L
ORGA: Institut fur Rechtsmedizin und Verkehrsmedizin der Universitat Heidelberg.
PUB TYPE: Journal Article.
CITE: Arch Kriminol. 2001 May-Jun; 207 (5-6): 137-47.
LANG: GER; German
ABST: Whenever small amounts of drugs are present in blood or urine samples, especially of substances that are preferentially smoked such as cannabinoids, the discrimination between active and passive inhalation may cause severe problems. The statement of a passive exposure by marijuana smoke has been scrutinized reviewing the literature. The pharmacokinetics of smoked marijuana as well as experimental data on cannabinoid concentrations in plasma and urine samples following passive exposure are summarized. As a conclusion it seems urgent to enlarge the existing data base.
MJTR: Cannabinoids, pharmacokinetics. Marijuana Smoking, legislation & jurisprudence. Substance Abuse Detection, legislation & jurisprudence. Tobacco Smoke Pollution.
MNTR: Automobile Driving, legislation & jurisprudence. English Abstract. Humans. Marijuana Smoking, metabolism. Metabolic Clearance Rate, physiology. Social Environment. Tetrahydrocannabinol, pharmacokinetics.
RNUM: 0 (Cannabinoids); 1972-08-3 (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
IDEN: ISSN: 0003-9225. JOURNAL-CODE: 0002256. ENTRY-DATE: 20010817. SPECIAL-LIST: IM. JOURNAL-SUBSET: IM.
TITL: Time of drug elimination in chronic drug abusers. Case study of 52 patients in a "low-step" detoxification ward.
AUTH: Reiter A; Hake J; Meissner C; Rohwer J; Friedrich H J; Oehmichen M
ORGA: Department of Legal Medicine, Medical University of Lubeck, Kahlhorststrasse 31-35, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany.
PUB TYPE: Journal Article.
CITE: Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Jun 15; 119 (2): 248-53.
LANG: ENG; English
ABST: The elimination time of illicit drugs and their metabolites is of both clinical and forensic interest. In order to determine the elimination time for various drugs and their metabolites we recruited 52 volunteers in a protected, low-step detoxification program. Blood samples were taken from each volunteer for the first 7 days, daily, urine sample for the first 3 weeks, daily. Urine was analyzed using a fluorescence-polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), serum using GC/MS. The elimination times of the drugs and/or their metabolites in urine and serum as well as the tolerance intervals/confidence intervals were determined. Due to the sometimes extremely high initial concentrations and low cut-off values, a few of the volunteers had markedly longer elimination times than those described in the literature. The cut-off values were as follows: barbiturates II (200ng/ml), cannabinoids (20ng/ml), cocaine metabolites (300ng/ml), opiates (200ng/ml). GC/MS detected the following maximum elimination times: total morphine in urine up to 270.3h, total morphine and free morphine in serum up to 121.3h, monoacetylmorphine in urine up to 34.5h, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in urine up to 433.5h, THC-COOH in serum up to 74.3h, total codeine in urine up to 123h, free codeine in urine up to 97.5h, total codeine in serum up to 29h, free codeine in serum up to 6.3h, total dihydrocodeine (DHC) in urine up to 314.8h, free DHC in urine up to 273.3h, total and free DHC in serum up to 50.1h. Cocaine and its metabolites were largely undetectable in the present study.
MJTR: Street Drugs, metabolism. Substance-Related Disorders, metabolism.
MNTR: Adult. Chronic Disease. Female. Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay. Hospital Units. Humans. Male. Mass Fragmentography. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Prospective Studies. Substance Abuse Detection. Substance Abuse Treatment Centers. Substance-Related Disorders, therapy. Time Factors.
RNUM: 0 (Street Drugs)
IDEN: ISSN: 0379-0738. JOURNAL-CODE: 7902034. ENTRY-DATE: 20010529. SPECIAL-LIST: IM. JOURNAL-SUBSET: IM.